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The Science Of Earth Quakes

The Science Of Earth Quakes

The Science Of Earth Quakes

The Science Of Earth Quakes

The science of earthquakes is called seismology. The study has been around for decades but still has plenty to learn. The act of an earth quake starts when the tectonic plates, which are huge pieces of moving rock that make up the outermost layer on Earth, move in relation to one another. The movement causes stress in the rocks below us which then generates seismic waves in all directions at very high speeds. The speed ranges from 1-8 kilometers per second (0.62 – 5 miles per second). The last part is important because it means these waves travel fast enough to reach distant places within a matter of minutes after they are first produced by the earthquake itself.

The tyoes if earthquake The two main types are body waves and surface waves. The difference is how far the waves reach out after they are generated by an earthquake. The body waves, or P-waves, come in two types that differ based on their speed and type of movement. The faster body wave, P-wave moves through the Earth in a compression motion while S-waves move through it in a shearing motion. The slower body waves are more powerful but are less likely to cause damage because they dissipate quickly upon reaching the surface while P-waves carry much more energy with them even when traveling at long distances which makes them easier to detect for seismometers all over the world. The surface waves are slower than both of these types and have what is called Love Waves named after its discoverer, A.E.H. Love. The waves propagate mainly by expanding and contracting the ground horizontally which is why they can cause a lot of damage near their epicenter, but dissipate more quickly than the body waves as well because of this movement in relation to the Earth’s crust. The two types differ in how they move based on whether it is what is known as “transverse” (where rock moves opposite to wave motion) or “compressional” (in line with wave motion). The main factor in all earthquake intensity is distance from the fault which generates them. The further away you are, generally speaking, the weaker the shaking will be unless you’re very close to its epicenter (which means less time until aftershocks). The only way to know for sure what a specific epicenter’s intensity will be is to make a map from the point outwards by measuring the P-wave and S-waves generated at each point. The more intense shaking means that earthquakes are more likely to cause physical damage, but as long as you’re not right on top of it, they can still do what they’re supposed to which is move tectonic plates along their faultlines. The quake itself occurs because of plate movement, but only becomes destructive based on how the seismic waves radiate out from the epicenter.

Quakes The most widely known and most common types of quakes are: – Major EQ: This type of earthquake has an Intensity Scale (see below) of VIII or more and a Mercalli Intensity of at least VIII in the area where it occurred or was felt. – The scale is designed so that a tremor measuring 5.0 on the Richter scale would be barely noticeable, while one measuring 8.5 could cause serious damage in areas within hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter. The most widely known and most common types of earthquakes are  – Major EQ: This type of earthquake has an Intensity Scale (see below) of VIII or more and a Mercalli Intensity of at least VIII in the area where it occurred

– Minor EQ: This type of earthquake has an Intensity Scale (see below) between VII & I and a Mercalli Intenstiy between V & IX in the area where it occurred or was felt

– The scale is designed so that a tremor measuring 5.0 on the Richter scale would be barely noticeable, while one measuring 8.5 could cause serious damage in areas within hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter. The most widely known and most common types of earthquakes are  – Minor EQ: This type of earthquake has an Intensity Scale (see below) between VII & I and a Mercalli Intenstiy between V & IX in the area where it occurred or was felt

– Light EQ: The type of earthquake with an Intensity Scale (see below) between VI – II and a Mercalli Intenstiy less than V The most widely known and most common types of earthquakes are The most widely known and most common types of earthquakes are The type of earthquake with an Intensity Scale (see below) between VI – II and a Mercalli Intenstiy less than V The most widely known and most common types of earthquakes are

– The Chinese Earthquake Administration uses the Moment Magnitude Scale (MMS) to measure the total amount or moment that was expended by an earthquake. The MMS is also used to calculate the seismic risk at a particular location. The scale for this type ranges from 0 to 9 as follows: 0 : Not felt, no damage 1-2: Felt only on Hainan Island in China 3-4: Felt in Beijing 5: Can cause damage to poorly constructed buildings within 100 km 6: Can be destructive in areas up to 100 km and can cause major damage in areas up to 300 km 7: Can be destructive in areas up to 500 km and can cause serious damage in areas up to 1,000 km 8: The biggest earthquakes most people will see 9: The smallest known earthquakes The scale for this type ranges from 0 to 9 as follows:  0 : Not felt, no damage

– The Mercalli Intensity Scale (MIS) measures the intensity of an earthquake based on what is felt by people. The scale for this types ranges from I – XII as follows:

I : Barely noticeable effects; it is likely that no one would even recognize an earthquake had occurred

II : The quake would be felt indoors by some people, but those outside might not notice it. The vibrations are similar to the passing of a truck. Things may swing slightly. The picture above shows damage caused by an earthquake at VIII on the MMS The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The scale for this types ranges from I – XII as follows: I : Barely noticeable effects; it is likely that no one would even recognize an earthquake had occurred II : The quake would be felt indoors by some people, but those outside might not notice it. The vibrations are similar to the passing of a truck. Things may swing slightly. The picture above shows damage caused by an earthquake at VIII on the MMS The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The picture above shows damage caused by an earthquake at VIII on the MMS The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people III : The quake is noticed indoors. The vibrations can be compared to a passing truck. There will likely be a lot of falling objects and glass breaking, but most buildings will not sustain serious damage unless they are already in bad condition or poorly reinforced with inadequate foundations. The picture above shows minor building damage from an earthquake at VII on the MMS The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The picture above shows minor building damage from an earthquake at VII on the MMS The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The picture above shows minor building damage from an earthquake at VII The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The picture above shows minor building damage from an earthquake at VII The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people IV : The quake will be noticed indoors as well as out. The vibrations can be compared to those of a heavy truck or a passing train. The vibration may cause hanging objects to swing and dishes and windows may rattle. The most solid structures will suffer some damage, but it can be localized and easily repaired. The picture above shows non-structural damage to the interior and exterior walls caused by an earthquake at VI on the MMS The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The picture above shows non-structural damage to the interior and exterior walls caused by an earthquake at VI The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The picture above shows non-structural damage to the interior and exterior walls The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people V : The quake can be felt indoors, but most people have learned how to stand and sit so as not to be thrown from their seats. The vibrations are much like those a heavy truck makes when it passes or lurches. There will likely be windows broken, dishes displaced, shaken furniture, cracking plaster, falling from high places, and possible damage to chimneys. The picture above shows non-structural damage to the interior, entrance way, and exterior caused by an earthquake at V The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The picture above shows non-structural damage to the interior, entrance way, and exterior The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The picture above shows non-structural damage to the interior The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The picture above shows non-structural damage to the entrance way The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The picture above shows non-structural damage to the exterior The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The picture above shows non-structural damage to the exterior The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The picture above shows non-structural damage to the exterior The intensity of an earthquake is measured based on what is felt by people The other type of wave that shake the ground are Love waves. They travel along the earth’s surface and are not detectable because they do not vibrate buildings or furniture. The shaking caused by Love waves are only felt by people standing directly over the seismic source. The other type of wave that shake the ground are Love waves. They travel along the earth’s surface and are not detectable because they do not vibrate buildings or furniture. The shaking caused by Love waves are only felt by The other type of wave that shake the ground are Love waves. They travel along The shaking caused by Love waves The shaking caused by Love The other type of wave that shake the ground The other type of wave The ground The earth The earth’s surface

The shaking caused by Love waves The shaking caused by Love waves The shaking caused by Love waves The shaking caused by Love waves